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References for Specific Pathologies

Achilles Tendinitis

Smith M, Brooker S, Vicenzino B, McPoil, T. Use of anti pronating taping to access suitability of orthotic prescription: Case report. Australian Journal of Physical Therapy 50(2)111, 2004

Larsen K, Weidich F, Le Boeuf-Yde C. Can custom-made biomechanic shoe orthoses prevent problems in the back and lower extremities? A randomized, controlled intervention trial of 146 military conscripts. Journal of Manipulative Physical Therapy June 25(5) 326, 2002

Riddle DL, Freeman DB. Management of a patient with a diagnosis of bilateral plantar fasciitis and Achilles tendinitis. A case report. Physical Therapy Dec: 68(12) 1913, 1988

Subotnick SI, Sisney P. Treatment of Achilles tendinopathy in the athlete. JAPMA Oct: 76 (10) 552, 1986


Adult-Acquired Flatfoot

Abboud J, Kapcha P: Supination lag as an indication of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Foot Ankle 19:570, 1998.

Alvarez RG, Marini A, Schmitt C, et al: Stage I and II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction treated by a structured nonoperative management protocol – an orthosis and exercise program. Foot Ankle Int 27(1):2 – 8, 2006.

Augustin JF, Lin SS, Berberian WS, et al: Nonoperative treatment of adult acquired flatfoot with the Arizona brace. Foot and Ankle Clinics North America 8:491-502, 2003.

Beals TC, Manoli I. An unusual cause of posterior tibial tendon degeneration. Foot Ankle Int, 19(3):177,1998.

Goldner JL, Keats PK, Bassett FH, et al: Progressive talipes equino valgus due to trauma or degeneration of the posterior tibial tendon and medial plantar ligaments. Orthopedic Clinics North America 5:39, 1974.

Hintermann B, Gachter A: The first metatarsal rise sign - A simple sensitive sign of tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction. Foot Ankle 17:237,1966.

Imhauser CW, Abidi NA, Frankel DZ, et al: Biomechanical evaluation of the efficacy of external stabilizers in conservative treatment of acquired flatfoot deformity. Foot Ankle Int 23(8), 2002.

Johnson KA, Strom DE: Tibialis posterior dysfunction Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research 239:196, 1989.

Kettlecamp DB. Spontaneous rupture of the posterior tibial tendon. J Bone Joint Surg, 51A(4):759,1969.

Kirby KA .The medial heel skive technique: Improving pronation control in foot orthoses. JAPMA 82:177, 1992.

Myerson MS. Adult acquired flatfoot deformity. J Bone Joint Surg, 78A:780, 1996.

Richie DH. A new approach to adult-acquired flatfoot. Podiatry Today 17(5):32-46, 2004.


Calcaneal Apophysitis(or Severs Disease or Osteochondrosis calcaneus)

Thomson P, Volpe R. Introduction to podopediatrics, 2nd Ed. Elsevier, Churchill, Livingstone, Edinburgh, 341-343, 2001

Micheli LJ, Ireland ML. Prevention and management of calcaneal apophysitis in children: An overuse syndrome. Journal Pediatric Orthopedics 7(1):34-38, 1987


Diabetic Foot

Abouaesha F, van Schie CH, Griffths GD, Young RJ, Boulton AJ. Plantar tissue thickness is related to peak plantar pressure in the high-risk diabetic foot. Diabetes Care 24(7):1270-4, 2001.

Armstrong DG, Liswood PJ, Todd WF. Potential risks of accommodative padding in the treatment of neuropathic ulcerations. Ostomy Wound Manage 41(7):44-6,48-9, 1995.

Armstrong DG, Peters EJ, Athanasiou KA, Lavery LA. Is there a critical level of plantar foot pressure to identify patients at risk for neuropathic foot ulceration? J Foot Ankle Surg 37(4):303-7, 1998.

Bus SA, Maas M, de Lange A, Michels RP, Levi M. Elevated plantar pressures in neuropathic diabetic patients with claw/hammer toe deformity. J Biomech 38(9):1918-25, 2005.

Campbell, GJ, McLure M, Newell EN. Compressive behavior after simulated  service conditions of some foamed materials intended as orthotic shoe insoles. J Rehabil Res Dev 21(2):57-65, 1984.

Cavanagh PR, Bus SA. Off-loading the diabetic foot for ulcer prevention and healing. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(5):360-8, 2010.

Chen WP, Ju CW, Tang FT. Effects of total contact insoles on the plantar stress redistribution: a finite element analysis. Clin Biomech 18:(6):S17-24, 2003.

Davis I, Laughton C, McClay Davis I, Williams DS. A comparison of 4 methods of obtaining a negative impression of the foot. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(5):261-8, 2002.

Fernandez ML, Lozano RM, Diaz MI, et al. How effective is orthotic treatment in patients with recurrent diabetic foot ulcers? 103(4) J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(4):281-90, 2013

Fernando DJ, Masson EA, Veves A, Boulton AJ. Relationship of limited joint mobility to abnormal foot pressures and diabetic foot ulceration. Diabetes Care 14(1):8-11, 1991

Gefen A, Megido-Ravid M, Azariah M, Itzchak Y, Arcan M. Integration of plantar soft tissue stiffness measurements in routine MRI of the diabetic foot. Clin Biomech 16(10):921-25, 2001.

Hastings MK, Mueller MJ, Pilgram TK, Lott DJ, Commean PK, Johnson JE. Effect of metatarsal pad placement on plantar pressure in people with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy. Foot Ankle Int 28(1):84-8, 2007.

Hsi WL, Kang JH, Lee XX. Optimum position of metatarsal pad in metatarsalgia for pressure relief. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 84(7):514-20, 2005

Hsi WL, Ulbrecht JS, Perry JE, et al. Plantar pressure threshold for ulceration risk using the EMED SF platform [abstract]. Diabetes 42(S1):103a, 1993.

Kang JH, Chen MD, Chen SC, Hsi WL. Correlations between subjective treatment responses and plantar pressure parameters of metatarsal pad treatment in metatarsalgia patients: a prospective study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 5;7:95, 2006.

Klaesner JW, Hastings MK, Zou D, Lewis C, Mueller MJ. Plantar tissue stiffness in patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83(12):1796-1801, 2002.

Lavery LA, Armstrong DG, Wunderlich RP, et al. Predictive value of foot pressure assessment as part of a population-based diabetes disease management program. Diabetes Care 26(4):1069-73, 2003

Lavery LA, Lanctot DR, Constantinides G, et al. Wear and biomechanical characteristics of a novel shear-reducing insole with implications for  high-risk persons with diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther 7(4):638-46, 2005

Lavery LA, LaFontaine J, Higgins K, et al. Shear-reducing insoles to prevent foot ulceration in high-risk diabetic patients. Adv Skin Wound Care 25(11):519-24, 2012.

Ledoux WR, Shofer JB, Matthew S, et al. Diabetic foot ulcer incidence in relation to plantar pressure magnitude and measurement location. J Diabetes Complications  27(6);621-626, 2013

Lobmann R, Kasten G, Kasten U, Lehnert H. Association of increased plantar pressures with peripheral sensorimotor and peripheral autonomic neuropathy in Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes, Nutr Metab 15(3): 165-8, June 2002

Maluf KS, Morley RE Jr, Richter EJ, Klaesner JW, Mueller MJ. Monitoring in-shoe plantar pressures, temperature, and humidity: reliability and validity of measures from a portable device. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 82(8):1119-27, 2001

McPoil TG, Schuit D, Knecht HG. Comparison of three methods used to obtain a neutral plaster foot impression. Phys Ther 69(6):448-52, 1989.

Mueller MJ, Lott DJ, Hastings MK, Commean PK, Smith KE, Pilgram TK. Efficacy and mechanism of orthotic devices to unload metatarsal heads in people with diabetes and a history of plantar ulcers. Phys Ther 86(6):833-42, 2006

Murray HJ, Young MJ, Hollis S, et al. The association between callus formation, high pressures and neuropathy in diabetic foot ulceration. Diabet Med 13(11):979-82, 1996.

Paton J, Jones RB, Stenhouse E, Bruce G. The physical characteristics of materials used in the manufacture of orthoses for patients with diabetes. Foot Ankle Int 28(10):1057-63, 2007.

Sauseng S, Kastenbauer T. Effect of limited joint mobility on plantar pressure in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Acta Medica Austriaca 26(5):178-81, 1999.

Tong JW, Ng EY. Preliminary investigation on the reduction of plantar loading pressure with different insole materials (SRP--Slow Recovery Poron, P--Poron, PPF--Poron +Plastazote, firm and PPS-Poron+Plastazote, soft). Foot (Edinb) 20(1):1-6, 2010.

Tsung BYS, Zhang M, Mak AFT, Wong MW. Effectiveness of insoles on plantar pressure redistribution. J Rehabil Res Dev 41(6A):767-74, 2004

Veves A, Murray HJ, Young MJ, and Boulton AJM. The risk of foot ulceration in diabetic patients with high foot pressure: a prospective study. Diabetologia 35(7):660-3, 1992.

Viswanathan V, Snehalatha C, Sivagami M, Seena R, Ramachandran A. Association of limited joint mobility and high plantar pressure in diabetic foot ulceration in Asian Indians. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 60(1):57-61, 2003.

Zimny S, Schatz H, Pfohl M. The role of limited joint mobility in diabetic patients with an at-risk foot. Diabetes Care 27(4):942-6, 2004.


Hallux Limitus

Boffeli TJ, Bean JK, Natwick JR. Biomechanical abnormalities and ulcers of the great toe in patients with diabetes. Foot Ankle Surg, 41(6):359-64, 2002.

Drago JJ, Oloff L, Jacobs AM. A comprehensive review of hallux limitus. J Foot Surg 23: 213, 1984.

Ebisui JM. The first ray axis and the first metatarsophalangeal joint; an anatomical and pathomechanical study. J Am Pod Med Assoc, 58:160-168, 1968.

Grady JF, Axe TM, Zager EJ, et al. A retrospective analysis of 772 patients with hallux limitus. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92:102, 2002.


Intoeing Gait (gait plate)

Schuster RO. A device to influence the angle of gait. J Am Podiatry Assoc 1967:57(6):269-270.

Jordan RP. Therapeutic considerations of the feet and lower extremities in the cerebral palsied child. Clinical Podiatry 1984:1(3) 547-561.

Volpe R. Evaluation and management of intoed gait in the neurologically intact child. Clinical Podiatric Medicine, 1997:14(1) 57-85.


Knee - Medial Osteoarthritis

Butler RJ, Marchesi S, Royer T, Davis IS. The effect of a subject-specific amount of lateral wedge on knee mechanics in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis. J Orthop Res 25(9):1121-1127, 2007.

Rubin R, Menz HB. Use of laterally wedged custom foot orthoses to reduce pain associated with medial knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary investigation. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc;95(4):347-352, 2005.

Brouwer RW, Jakma TS, Vehagen AP, et al. Braces and orthoses for treating osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Databse Syst Rev (1):CD004020, 2005.

Maillefert JF, Hudry C, Baron G, et al. Laterally elevated wedged insoles in the treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis: a prospective randomized controlled study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 9(8):738-745, 2001.


Knee - Patellofemoral Pain

Tria AJ, Palumbo RC, Alicea JA. Conservative care for patellofemoral pain. Orthop Clin North Am 23(4):545-554, 1992.

DeHaven KE, Dolan WA, Mayer PJ. Chondromalacia patellae in athletes. Clinical presentation and conservative management. Am J Sports Med 7(1):5-11, 1979.

Fischer RL. Conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain. Orthop Clin North Am 17(2):269-272, 1986.

Eng JJ, Pierrynowski MR. Evaluation of soft foot orthotics in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Phys Ther 73(2):62-68, 1993.

Nawoczenski DA, Cook TM, Saltzman CL. The effect of foot orthotics on three-dimensional kinematics of the leg and rearfoot during running. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 21(6):317-327, 1995.

McCulloch M, Brunt D, Vander Linden D. The effect of foot orthotics and gait velocity on lower limb kinematics and temporal events of stance. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 17(1):2-10, 1993.

Tiberio D. The effect of excessive subtalar joint pronation on patellofemoral mechanics: A theoretical model. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 9(4):160-165, 1987.

Mundermann A, Nigg BM, Humble RN, Stefanyshyn DJ. Foot orthotics affect lower extremity kinematics and kinetics during running. Clin Biom 18(3)254-262, 2003.

Powers CM. The influence of altered lower-extremity kinematics on patellofemoral joint dysfunction: a theoretical perspective. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 33(11):639-646, 2003.

Heiderscheit BC, Hamill J, Caldwell GE. Influence of Q-angle on lower-extremity running kinematics. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 30(5):271-278, 2000.

D’Amico JC. The influence of foot orthoses on the quadriceps angle. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 76(6):337-340, 1986.

Collins N, Crossley K, Beller E, et al. Foot orthoses and physiotherapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: randomised clinical trial. Br J Sports Med 43(3):163-168, 2009.

Way MC. Effects of a thermoplastic foot orthosis on patellofemoral pain in a collegiate athlete: a single-subject design. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 29(6):331-338, 1999.

Johnston LB, Gross MT. Effects of foot orthoses on quality of life for individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 34(8):440-448, 2004.

Pitman D, Jack D. A clinical investigation to determine the effectiveness of biomechanical foot orthoses as initial treatment for patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Prosthet Orthot 12(4);110-116, 2000.

Saxena A, Haddad J. The effect of foot orthoses on patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(4):264-271, 2003.

MacLean CL, Davis IS, Hamill J. Short and long-term influences of a custom foot orthotic intervention on lower extremity dynamics. Clin J Sport Med 18(4):338-343, 2008.

Gross MT, Foxworth JL. The role of foot orthoses as an intervention for patellofemoral pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 33(11):661-670, 2003


 Knee - Other

Beckett ME, Massie DL, Bowers KD, Stoll DA. Incidence of hyperpronation in the ACL injured knee: A clinical perspective. J Athl Train 27(1):58-62, 1992.

Woodford-Rogers B, Cyphert L, Denegar CR. Risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury in high school and college athletes. J Athl Train 29(4):343-346, 1994.

Loudon JK, Jenkins WL, Loudon KL. The relationship between static posture and ACL injury in female athletes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 24(2):91-97, 1996. 



Lateral Ankle Instability

Guskiewicz KM, Perrin DH: Effect of orthotics on postural sway following inversion ankle sprain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 23: 326, 1996.

Hertel J, Denegar CR, Buckley WE, et al: Effect of rearfoot orthotics on postural control in healthy subjects. J Sport Rehabil 10: 36, 2001.

Hertel J: Functional anatomy, pathomechanics, and pathophysiology of lateral ankle instability. J Athl Train 37: 364, 2002.

Kirby KA: Subtalar joint axis location and rotational equilibrium theory of foot function. J Am Podiat Med Assoc, 91:465-487, 2001.

Munn J, Beard DJ, Refshauge KM, et al. Eccentric muscle strength in functional ankle instability. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 35(2): 245. 2003.

Ochsendorf DT, Mattacola CG, Arnold BL. Effect of orthotics on postural sway after fatigue of the plantar flexors and dorsiflexors. J Athl Train 35(1):26, 2000.

Orteza LC, Vogelbach WD, Denegar CR: The effect of molded and unmolded orthotics on balance and pain while jogging following inversion ankle sprain. J Athl Train 27: 80, 1992.

Richie, DH: Effects of foot orthoses on patients with chronic ankle instability. J Am Podiat Med Assoc 97:19-30, 2007.

Tropp H, Odenick P, Gillquist J: Stabilometry recordings in functional and mechanical instability of the ankle joint. Int J Spt Med 6:180, 1985.



Bennett GL, Graham CE, Mauldin DM. Mortons interdigital neuroma: A comprehensive treatment protocol, Foot and Ankle International Dec 16(12) 760, 1995

Brantingham JW, Snyder J, Michaud T. Mortons neuroma. Journal of Manipulative Physiotherapy June 14(5) 317, 1991

Hetherington VJ, Johnson RE, Albritton JS. Necessary dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint during gait. J Foot Surg 29: 218, 1990.

Kashuk KB. Hallux rigidus, hallux limitus and other functionally limiting disorders of the great toe joint: background, treatment and case studies. J Foot Surg 14: 45, 1975.

Kelso SF, Richie DH Jr, Cohen IR, et al. Direction and range of motion of the first ray. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc, 72:600-605, 1982.

Laird PO. Functional hallux limitus. Illinois Podiatrists 9:4,1972.

Roukis TS, Landsman, AS. Hypermobility of the first ray: a critical review of the literature. J Foot Ankle Surg, 42: Nov/Dec 2003.

Roukis TS, Scherer PR, Anderson CF. Position of the first ray and motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 86:538-546, 1996.

Scherer PR, Sanders J, Eldredge D, et al. Effect of functional foot orthoses on first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion in stance and gait, J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 96(6):474, 2006.

Shereff MJ. Pathology, anatomy and biomechanics of hallux valgus. Orthopaedics 13: 939, 1990.

Whitaker JM, Augustus K, Ishii S. Affect of Low-Dye strap on pronation sensitive mechanical attributes of the foot. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 93:118, 2003.


Pediatric Flatfoot

Blake R, Ferguson H: Foot orthoses for severe flatfoot in sports. J Am Pod Med Assoc, 81:10, 1991.

Bleck E, Berzins U: Conservative management of pes valgus with plantarflexed talus, flexible. Clinical Orthopedics 122:85, 1977.

Bordelon RL: Correction of hypermoblie flatfoot in children by molded insert. Foot Ankle, 1(3):143-150, 1980.

Bordelon, RL: Hypermobile flatfoot in children; comprehensive, evaluation and treatment. Clin Orthop Rel Research, 181:12,1983.

Bordin D, DeGiorgi G, Mazzocco G, Rigon F: Flat and cavus foot, indexes of obesity and overweight in a population of primary-school children. Minerva Pediatrics, 53:7-13, 2001.

Dowling AM, Steel JR, Baur LA: Does obesity influence foot structure and plantar pressure patterns in prepubescent children? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25:845-52, 2001.

El O, Akacali O, Kosay C, Flexible flatfoot and related factors in primary school children; a report of a screening study. Rheumatol Int 26:1050, 2006.

Evans AM: The flat-footed child – to treat or not to treat. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(5):386-393, 2008.

Franco A: Pes cavus and pes planus analysis and treatment. Phys Ther, 67:688, 1987.

Garcia-Rodriguez A, Martin-Jimenez F, Carney-Varo M, et al. Flexible flatfeet in children: a real problem? Pediatrics, 103-6, 1999.

Harris E, Vanore J, Thomas J, et al: Diagnosis and treatment of pediatric flatfoot. J Foot Ankle Surg 43(6):341, 2004.

Kirby K, Green D: Evaluation and non operative management of pes valgus foot. De Valentine foot and Ankle Disorders in Children, New York, Churchill Livingstone 295: 1992.

Lin C, Lai K, Kuan T. Correlating factors and clinical significance of flexible flatfoot in preschool children. Jl of Pediat Orthop 21:378, 2001.

Mereday C, Dolan, CM, Luskin R: Evaluation of the University of California Biomechanics Laboratory shoe insert in “flexible” pes planus. Clin Orthop 82:45, 1972.

Mickle KJ, Steele JR, Munro BJ: The feet of overweight and obese children: are they flat or fat? Obesity, 14:1949-53, 2006.

Mickle KJ, Steele JR, Munro BJ: Does excess mass affect plantar pressure in young children? Int J Pediatr Obes, 1:83-8,2006

Park I, Song K, Shin S: Flatfoot survey in 8 year old primary school children. J Korean Foot Ankle Soc. 8:7, 2004.

Paton JS, Spooner SK.: Effect of extrinsic rearfoot post design on the lateral-to-medial position and velocity of the center of pressure. J Am Pod Med Assoc, 96(5)383, 2006.

Penneau K, Lutter LD, Winter RB: Pes planus – radiographic changes with foot orthoses and shoes. Foot Ankle 2:299, 1982.

Pfeiffer M, Kotz R, Ledl T, et al: Prevalence of flatfoot in preschool-aged children. Pediatrics, 118:634-639, 2006.

Pomerantz WJ, Timm NL, Gittleman MA. Injury patterns in obese versus nonobese children presenting to a pediatric emergency department. Pediatrics, 125(4): 681-685, 2010 

Root, ML, Orien, W, Weed, JH: Normal and abnormal function of the foot. Los Angeles, Clinical Biomechanics, 1971.

Scranton PE, Goldner J, Leonard LL, et al: Management of hypermobile flatfoot in child. Contemporary Orthopedics. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders 1972.

Selby-Silverstein L, Hillstrom H, Palisano R. The effect of foot orthoses on standing foot posture and gait of young children with Down syndrome. Neurorehab 16:183, 2001.

Staheli LT: Planovalgus foot deformity – current status. J Am Pod Med Assoc 89:94, 1999.

Sullivan JA: Pediatric flatfoot evaluation and management. Academy of Orthop Surg 7:44, 1999.

Timm NL, Grupp-Phelan J, Ho ML. Chronic ankle morbidity in obese children following an acute ankle injury. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159(1): 33-36, 2005 

Valmassy R: Lower extremity treatment modalities for the pediatric patient. Clinical Biomechanics of the Lower Extremity. 1st ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book Inc: 1996  

Wenger DF, Mauldin D, Speck G, et al: Corrective shoes and inserts as treatment for flexible flatfoot in infants and children. J Bone Joint Surg 71A:800, 1989.

Whitford D, Esterman A: A Randomized controlled trial of two types of in-shoe orthoses in children with flexible excess pronation of the feet. Foot Ankle Int 28:6, 2007.


Pes Cavus

Benedetti MG, Catani F, Ceccarelli F, et al. Gait analysis in pes cavus. Gait Posture 5(2):169, 1997.

Bennett PJ, Patterson C, Wearing S. et al. Development and validation of a questionnaire designed to measure foot-health status. JAPMA 88(9):419-428, 1998.

Brewerton DA, Sandifer PH, Sweetnam DR. “Idiopathic” pes cavus. Br Med J, 2:659-61, 1963.

Burns J, Crosbie J, Hunt A, et al. The effect of pes cavus on foot pain and plantar pressure. Clin Biomech, 20(9):877-882, 2005.

Burns J, Crosbie J, Ouvrier R, et al.: Effective Orthotic Therapy for the Painful Cavus Foot. JAPMA, 96: 205-211, 2006.

Cavanaugh PR, Morag E, Boulton AJ, et al. The relationship of static foot structure to dynamic foot function. J Biomech 30(3):243-50.

Chalmers AC, Busby C, Goyert J, et al. Metatarsalgia and rheumatoid arthritis-a randomized, single blind, sequential trial comparing two types of foot orthoses and supportive shoes. J Rheumat 27(7):1643-7, 2000.

Crosbie J, Burns J. Are in-shoe pressure characteristics in symptomatic idiopathic pes cavus related to the location of foot pain? Gait Posture 27(1):16-22, 2008.

Ibrahim K. Pes cavus in surgery of the musculoskeletal system, (Everts CM, ed.), Churchill Livingston, New York, 1990.

Kirby K. Foot and Lower Extremity Biomechanics: A Ten Year Collection of Precision Intricast Newsletters. Precision Intricast 23-24, 1997.

Mueller MJ, Lott DJ, Hastings MK, et al. Efficacy and mechanism of orthotic devices to unload metatarsal heads in people with diabetes and a history of plantar ulcers. Phys Ther 86(6):833-42, 2006.

Redmond, A., Burns, J., Crosbie, J., Ouvrier, R., Peat, J.: An initial appraisal of the validity of a criterion based, observational clinical rating system forefoot posture. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther. 31: 160, 2001

Redmond AC, Crosbie J, Ouvrier. Development and validation of a novel rating system for scoring standing foot posture: the Foot Posture Index. Clin Biomech 21(1):89-98, 2006.

Sachithanandam V, Joseph B. The influence of footwear on the prevalence of flatfoot: a survey of 1846 skeletally mature persons. J Bone Joint Surg 77B(2):254, 1995.

Statler, T.K., Tullis, B.L.: Pes Cavus. JAPMA. 95: 42-52, 2005.

Walker M, Fan HJ. Relationship between foot pressure pattern and foot type. Foot Ankle Int 19(6):379-83, 1998.

Williams DS, McClay IS, Hammill J. Arch structure and injury patterns in runners. Clin Biomech 16(4):341-47, 2001.

Williams DS, McClay IS. Measurements used to characterize the foot and the medial longitudinal arc: reliability and validity. Phys Ther 80(9):864-71, 2000.


Plantar Fasciitis

Bordelon RL: Subcalcaneal pain. Clin Orthop 177:49, 1983.

Cheung JT, Zhang M, An KN. Effect of Achilles tendon loading on plantar fascia tension in the standing foot. Clin Biomech. 21(2):194-203, 2005.

Digiovanni BF, Nawoczenski DA, Malay DP, et al: Plantar fascia specific stretching exercise improves outcomes in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. A prospective clinical trial with two-year follow-up: J Bone Joint Surg 88A:1775-81, 2006.

Harty J: The role of hamstring tightness in plantar fasciitis: Foot Ankle Int 26(12) 1089-92, 2005.

Kogler G, Veer FB, Solomonidis SE: The influence of medial and lateral placement of orthotic wedges on loading of the plantar aponeurosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 81(10):1403-1413, 1999.

Lamont H, Ammirati K, Usen N: Plantar fasciitis: A degenerative process without inflammation: JAPMA 93:234-237, 2003.

Landorf K, Herbert R, Keenan A, et al: Effectiveness of different types of foot orthoses for the treatment of plantar fasciitis: JAPMA 94:542-549, 2004.

Landorf KB, Radford JA, Keenan A, et al: Effectiveness of low-Dye taping for the short term management of plantar fasciitis: JAPMA, 95:525-30, 2005.

Landorf KB, Keenan, AM, Herbert RD: Effectiveness of foot orthoses to treat plantar fasciitis. Arch Intern Med, 166:1305-1310, 2006.

Lapidus PW, Guidotti FP: Painful heel: report of 323 patients with 364 painful heels. Clin Orthop 39:178, 1965.

Lynch, DM, Goforth WP, Martin, JE, et al. Conservative treatment of plantar fasciitis. A prospective study, JAPMA 88(8):375-380, 1998.

Martin JE, Hosch JC, Goforth WP, et al: Mechanical treatment of plantar fasciitis – a prospective study. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(2):55-62, 2001.

Michetti ML, Jacobs, SA: Calcaneal heel spurs: etiology, treatment and a new surgical approach. J Foot Surg 22:234, 1983.

O’Brien D, Martin WJ: A retrospective analysis of heel pain. JAPMA 75:416, 1985.

Pfeffer G, Bacchetti P, Deland J, et al. Comparison of custom and prefabricated orthoses in the initial treatment of proximal plantar fasciitis. Foot Ankle Int 20(4):214-221, 1999.

Riddle DL, Schappert: Volume of ambulatory care visits and patterns of care for patients diagnosed with plantar fasciitis: A national study of medical doctors. Foot and Ankle Int 25: 303-310, 2004.

Rome K, Gray J, Stewart F, et al. Evaluating the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of foot orthoses in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a feasibility study. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(3):229-238, 2004.

Roos E: Foot orthoses for the treatment of plantar fasciitis: Foot and Ankle Int 166:606-611, June 2006.

Rosenfeld S: Management of the heel spur (syndrome). JAPMA 75:315, 1985.

Scherer PR. Heel spur syndrome. Pathomechanics and non-surgical treatment. Biomechanics Graduate Research Group for 1988. JAPMA 81(2):68-72, 1991.

Shama SS, Kominsky SJ, Lamont H: Prevalence of non-painful heel spur and its relationship to postural foot position. JAPMA 73:122, 1983.

Thomas JL, Christensen JC, Kravitz SR, et al. The diagnosis and treatment of heel pain: a clinical practice guideline-revision 2010. J Foot Ankle Surg May-Jun;49(3 Suppl):S1-19, 2010

Wolgin M, Cook C, Graham C, Mauldin D: Conservative treatment of plantar heel pain and follow-up. Foot Ankle Int. 15(3):97-102, 1994.


Rheumatoid Arthritis

Chalmers AC, Busby C, Goyert J, et al. Metatarsalgia and rheumatoid arthritis-a randomized, single blind, sequential trial comparing two types of foot orthoses and supportive shoes. J Rheumat 27(7):1643-7, 2000.

Clark H, Rome K, Plant M, et al: A critical review of foot orthoses in the rheumatoid arthritic foot. Rheumatol 45:139-145, 2006.

Hodge MC, Bach TM, Carter GM: Orthotic management of plantar pressure and pain in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Biomech 14(8):567-575, 1999.

Li CY, Imaishi K, Shiba N, et al: Biomechanical evaluation of foot pressure and loading force during gait in rheumatoid arthritic patients with and without foot orthosis: Kurume Med J, 47:211-217, 2000.

Magalhaes E, Davitt M, Filho DJ, et al: The effect of foot orthoses in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 45:449-453, 2006.

Powell M, Seid M, Szer IS: Efficacy of custom foot orthotics in improving pain and functional status in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a randomized trial: J Rheumatol 32(5):943-50, 2005.

Woodburn J, Barker S, Helliwell PS: A randomized controlled trial of foot orthoses in rheumatoid arthritis: J Rheumatol 29:1377-83, 2002.

Woodburn J, Helliwell PS, Barker S: Changes in 3D joint kinematics support the continuous use of orthoses in the management of painful rearfoot deformity in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 30:2356-64, 2003.



Seder JI. Sesamoiditis, JAPMA June 64 (6) 444-6, 1974

Reeves M. Sesamoiditis, Journal American Veterans Medical Association Sept:15 199(6) 682, 1991

Sinus Tarsi Syndrome

Kirby KA. Rotational equilibrium across the subtalar joint axis, JAPMA Jan: 79(1) 1-14, 1989


Tarsal Tunnel

Fujita I, Matsumoto K, Minami T, et al: Tarsal tunnel syndrome caused by epineural ganglion of the posterior tibial nerve. J Foot Ankle Surg 43(3):185, 2004.

Gundring WH, Shields B, Wenger S: An outcome analysis of surgical treatment of tarsal tunnel syndrome. Foot Ankle Int ;24(7):545, 2003.

Havel P, Ebraheim N, et al: Tibial nerve branching in the tarsal tunnel, Foot Ankle 9:117, 1988.

Keck C: The tarsal tunnel syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg :44A:180, 1962.

Kinoshita M, Okuda R, Morikawa J, et al: The dorsiflexion-eversion test for diagnosis of tarsal tunnel syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg 83A(12):1835-9, 2001.

Kirby KA: The medial heel skive technique: Improving pronation control in foot orthoses. JAPMA 82:177, 1992.

Labib SA, Gould JS: Heel pain triad (HPT) the combination of plantar fasciitis, posterior tibial tendon dysfunction and tarsal tunnel syndrome: Foot Ankle Int 23(3):212, 2002.

Marui T, Yamamoto T, Akisue T, et al: Neurilemmoma in the foot as a cause of heel pain: A report of two cases: Foot Ankle Int 25(2):107, 2004.

Mondelli M, Morana P, Padua L: An electrophysiological severity scale in tarsal tunnel syndrome. Acta Neuro Scand 109(4):284, 2004.

Raikin SM, Minnich JM: Failed tarsal tunnel syndrome surgery. Foot Ankle Clin. 8(1):159, 2003.

Reade B, Longo D, Keller M: Tarsal tunnel syndrome: Clin Podiatr Med Surg, 18(3):395-408, 2001.

Trepman E, Kadel NJ: Effect of foot and ankle position on tarsal tunnel compartment pressure. Foot Ankle Int 20(11):721, 2000.



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